different universities. The students were provided with information about the study and how to fill them. There was not any type of problems during the running of the study. The students were told that there was no time limit for filling out the questionnaire. Though, it took more or less than 25 minutes for the participants to complete it.
10 instructors were interviewed based on the schedules for the convenience of the interviewees. Giving the instructors background information on the research, the researcher guaranteed the interviewee of confidentiality as no one either authorized or unauthorized would have access to their answers. The interviewer wrote down the responses straight away. Each interview approximately took 30 minutes.

3.6. Theoretical Framework
As the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the M.A. English Translation Curriculum based on students and instructors perspectives, the researcher conducted the study on the basis of the Tyler’s Objective Model (1949), which revolves around four central questions. The researcher felt that his framework was a well-constructed framework best fit this study.
1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?
The researcher tried to find out the instructional objectives of the English Translation curriculum so the instructional objectives may become the criteria for selecting materials, content outline, instructional methods developed, and tests prepared.
2. What educational experiences can be provided that is likely to attain these purposes?
The researcher should try to select the educational experiences according to the following criteria:
Are they …
• Valid in light of the ways in which knowledge and skills will be applied in out-of-school experiences
• Feasible in terms of time, staff expertise, facilities available within and outside of the school, community expectations
• Optimal in terms of students’ learning the content
• Capable of allowing students to develop their thinking skills and rational powers
• Capable of stimulating in students greater understanding of their own existence as individuals and as members of groups
• Capable of fostering in students an openness to new experiences and a tolerance for diversity
• Such that they will facilitate learning and motivate students to continue learning
• Capable of allowing students to address their needs
• Such that students can broaden their interests
• Such that they will foster the total development of students in cognitive, affective, psychomotor, social, and spiritual domains.
3. How can learning experiences are organized for effective instruction?
Having explored the learning experience from a number of perspectives, it is important to consider how those experiences are going to be organized to fulfill the purpose of the curriculum. Educational experiences must be organized to reinforce each other. When thinking about organizing a curriculum plan that will unfold over time, it is important to start with basic information or foundation skills and build toward more complex subject matter and abilities. Continuity, sequence, and integration are criteria for effective organization.
4. How can the effectiveness of learning experiences be evaluated?
The question requires that some means be in place to evaluate whether curriculum purposes are being fulfilled. Answering that question requires returning to the first question “what is the purpose”. Evaluation will only be effective if the purpose has been clearly stated and if observations along the way provide evidence that either supports the achievement of a specific purpose or indicates that it has not been met.
3.7. Data Analysis
The present study consisted of two rounds. In the first round a questionnaire was prepared to obtain data from students and instructors. In analyzing the data, the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques, including frequencies and percentages. For the second round, the researcher prepared a semi structured interview to gain more reliable data from instructors. The interviews were recorded and transcribed by the researcher.

CHAPTER IV

Results and Discussions

4.1. Introduction
This chapter presents the findings of the study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the present M.A. English Translation Curriculum in Iranian universities through instructors and students point of view based on Tyler (1949) model to find out whether the curriculum was well-designed enough to matches the current needs of students. To do so, the current researcher employed 4 researcher-made questionnaires as the main instrument and instructor interview to evaluate the research questions of the study and to collect data.
The questionnaires were designed based on Tyler model (1949) providing a series of critical steps for developing educational curriculum with measurable and attainable educational objectives. Through the development of the Tyler Model of curriculum evaluation, there was created a “process of determining the educational effectiveness of learning experiences” (Bloom, Madaus, & Hastings 198). It is worth mentioning that since Ralph Tyler’s model development, a number of theories to program evaluation have been designed all of which having somewhat differing approaches to this key educational task. Nevertheless, every theory comes from the main idea of having clear-cut and obtainable objectives as the groundwork of an educational curriculum initially offered by Ralph Tyler (1949).
To carry out the study, at first, a pilot study was applied to revise and modify the questionnaire of 5-point Likert scale with different labels for each one. In general, it took three months to collect the questionnaires. Some of the participants received the questionnaire through email. Then, in order to have in-depth information, 10 instructors were interviewed based on the given items in 4 questionnaires. The data obtained from the questionnaire was analyzed by using SPSS version17.
The data are presented according to the main elements of the curriculum provided by Tyler (1949) known as the father of educational evaluation i.e. students and instructors’ thought about the instructional objectives of M.A English Translation curriculum, about the courses included for M.A. English Translation curriculum, about the arrangement of the courses of the current English Translation curriculum and finally about the types of assessments carried out based on the current English Translation curriculum. The results were shown in the tables in terms of percentages and frequencies.
The data obtained in the current research, presented in tables, were given and analyzed based on the order of the research questions. In detail, after giving some description s and justifications of each research question, the respective table was given and the obtained data were discussed accordingly.
The researcher addressed the following questions based on the model provided by Tyler (1949):

این مطلب رو هم توصیه می کنم بخونین:   پایان نامه رایگان دربارهlanguage، learning، techniques، knowledge

1. What do students and instructors think about the instructional objectives of M.A. English Translation curriculum?

2. What do students and instructors think about the courses included in M.A. English Translation curriculum?

3. What do students and instructors think about the arrangement of the courses in the current M.A. English Translation curriculum?

4. What do students and instructors think about types of assessments given to students during or at the end of the current M.A. English Translation curriculum?
4.2.
Instructional objectives
The following research question targeting instructional objectives is:
1. What do students and instructors think about the instructional objectives of M.A. English Translation curriculum?
According to the first question, students and instructors were given a questionnaire with 4 items with five point scale items 5= strongly agree, 4=agree, 3=uncertain, 2=disagree, 1=strongly disagree
Table 1 presents the frequencies and percentages of students’ conceptions of the instructional objectives of the current M.A. English Translation Curriculum. As it is obvious in the table, 47.7% and 24.8 %( two-third) of the students believed that all the necessary learning objectives were not included in the program. 54.4% (more than half) of the students stated that there is not the balance between theories and practices. 37.2% and 28.9% (about two-third) of the students also were in the opinion that the current textbooks used for teaching are not helpful and finally 29.8% and 25.6% (more than half ) felt that the program length is not enough to achieve the program objectives that may affected by other three elements mentioned above.

Table 4.1: Students’ conceptions of the instructional objectives of the current M.A. English Translation Program
The effectiveness of current Program
Strongly Agree
Agree
Uncertain
Disagree
Strongly Disagree

F %
F %
F %
F %
F %
All the necessary learning objectives are included within the individual program courses

2

1.7

8

6.6

23

19

57

47.7

30

24.8
There is a proper balance between theory (i.e. classroom) and practice (i.e. lab/fieldwork)

1

0.8

7

5.8

12

9.9

35

28.9

66

54.5
The textbooks appear current and quite relevant for training in this field

4

3.3

15

12.4

21

17.4

45

37.2

35

28.9

The program length is sufficient to produce graduates with required knowledge in the field

13

10.7

20

16.5

20

16.5

36

29.8

31

25.6

Total
120
100
120
100
120
100
120
100
120
100

Table 2 shows frequencies and percentages of instructors’ conceptions of the instructional objectives of the current M.A. English Translation Curriculum. As can be seen in the table, in the same way as students, 33.3% and 33.3% (two-third) of instructors agreed that all the necessary learning objectives were not included in the program. Also about all of instructors agreed with students stating that there is not the balance between theories and practices. 43.3% and 20% (more than two-third) of instructors considered that the current textbooks were not current and completely relevant in the program. Finally, 33.3% and 29 % (more than half) of instructors felt that the program length is sufficient while 16.7% were not sure that the program length is sufficient and 13.3% and 6.7% respectively were certain that the program length is not sufficient.

Table 4.2: Instructors’ conceptions of the instructional objectives of the current M.A. English Translation Program

The effectiveness of current Program
Strongly Agree
Agree
Uncertain
Disagree
Strongly Disagree

F %
F %
F %
F %
F %
All the necessary learning objectives are included within the individual program courses

1

3.3

5

16.7

4

13.3

10

33.3

10

33.3
There is a proper balance between theory (i.e. classroom) and practice (i.e. lab/fieldwork)

0

0

5

16.7

25

83.3
The textbooks appear current and quite relevant for training in this field

1

3.3

6

20.0

4

13.3

13

43.3

6

20.0

The program length is sufficient to produce graduates with required knowledge in the field

10

33.3

9

29.0

5

16.7

4

13.3

2

6.7

Total
30
100
30
100
30
100
30
100
30
100

The first question in the interview, based on the


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