of assumptions has frequently been taken as a general framework of vocabulary knowledge, although as Meara (1996) points out, it is not as comprehensive as it might seem at first glance. Nevertheless, it highlights the complex nature of vocabulary learning which involves more than just memorizing the meaning of a word. It seems that Richard’s article is important because he tries to include different aspects of lexical competence in the model and shows the complex nature of vocabulary learning/teaching processes. This model implies that vocabulary instruction should go beyond helping the learners to internalize dictionary meanings and they should get familiar with diverse features of vocabulary. Later, Nation (1990) developed a classification in which a set of 18 questions classified into three categories. Each category contained receptive and productive aspects: (a) form, including spoken form, written form and word parts; (b) meaning, including form and meaning, concept, references and associations; (c) use, including grammatical functions, collocations and constraints of use such as register and frequency. Since the framework was written from a practical perspective, it is particularly useful for classroom teachers (Qian, 1999). As it was mentioned earlier, learning a word includes much more than remembering the orthographic and phonological form and their corresponding meanings. This means that central purpose in teaching should be to encourage and help learners to become more aware of how native speakers and other proficient speakers use the target language and to become more sensitive to different meanings of the word. What is important for language teachers is to determine the value of a lexical item in a given context, not its dictionary meaning (Widdowson, 1978). To achieve this, teachers should be aware of various levels of meaning of a word and impart this information to the learners.
2.1.6. Verbal and visual techniques of vocabulary teaching
Using verbal and visual techniques for teaching vocabulary is an efficient technique. According to Singleton (2000), there is a long tradition of research in verbal memory which indicates that if learners have a longer opportunity for rehearsal, recall of memorized items will be facilitated. He argued that by deep verbal processing in which different sense relations between the new word and background knowledge are established, the items will be more memorizable. The main types of these relationships are autonomy, synonymy and hyponymy. Along with this idea, psychologists have also shown that by making different relationships between the new word and other words in the target language, learning the new word can be facilitated to a great extent (Zarei&Gholami, 2007). But, sense relationships are not the only verbal techniques of vocabulary teaching. Other techniques are the use of oral and written illustrative situations, scales for contrasting and gradable items, exemplification (Gairns& Redman, 1986), definition (Nation, 1990, P.50) and categories (Allen &Valette, 1972, p.116).
Verbal language is only one part of the way we get meaning from context. In language teaching we must learn to deal with parts of language beyond the level of word or sentence. We induce and deduce not only from what we hear and read, but also from what we see around us.
Wright (1989) noted that the outside world must be simulated in the classroom. If students understand the reference and representation to the outside world, they will hopefully understand the new language associated with these representations. Visual aids can be used to represent these simulations and nonverbal information. There are many types of visual aids and each has its own kind of information for the observer. However, all of them have one common characteristic: providing detailed information that is difficult to grasp in text or impossible to describe accurately in words alone (Peng& Levin, 1979).
According to Gairns& Redman (1986), visual aids include flashcards, photographs, wall charts, blackboard drawings and realia. They are mostly used to teach concrete terms like places and activities. Mime and gesture are also visual techniques which are often used to supplement and reinforce the meaning. Learners remember better the material that has been presented by means of visual aids. Visuals help students associate presented material in a meaningful way and incorporate it into their system of values (Zebrowska, 1975). Read (2000), noted that the function of visual aids is to add information to what is given by the discourse; as a result we find visual aids only in conjunction with other theoretical features. So, due to their function in discourse, visuals are examples of what is being described in their accompanying texts. Visual aids facilitate recall of vocabulary in a way that words alone do not. They give us the information we need so that it plus the accompanying text add up to a meaningful unit of discourse. Contextual guesswork is a strategy in vocabulary learning in which non-verbal information is helpful. Visually-presented information helps us to predict what the text is about and the meanings will be recognized more quickly. Singleton (2000), suggested that encouraging learners to visualize while they are reading a text for comprehension or pleasure may lead to incidental lexical acquisition. Despite the advantages of verbal and visual techniques for teaching vocabulary, they are inadequate per se for development of accurate knowledge of lexicon. Without some kind of text explanation, no type of visual provides vocabulary information with the same clarity and precision that using both of them does and instructing vocabulary without some kind of visuals may be a tedious practice. Visual and verbal materials when used together are in most cases, work well than when each of them is used. So combining them in an integrative way is a very useful tool to exploit when teaching vocabulary.
Dwyer (1988), found a symbiotic relationship between verbal and visual literacy when the two were combined to facilitate students’ achievements. The concept of verbal/visual symbiosis is rooted in the idea that visuals support verbal cues and vice versa. In their study, Kost, Foss and Lenzini (1999), argued that “processing information requires different degrees of cognitive effort. The two different representations (verbal & visual) allow plotting of the picture into one mental model and thereby provide a strong bond than plotting of the words” (p.269). In another similar experience, Chanier (1996, p.158) speculated that “match between prominent visual cues and linguistic ones allows for the inference of unfamiliar words”. This is simply because students can visualize what the word means and relate the words to actual objects. However, sometimes teachers fail to take advantage of the verbal/visual relationship and instead of letting them to complement each other, on the other hand put too much emphasis on one of them. With regard to the fact that some information is easier to process in a particular mode, either verbal or visual, if the teacher imparts some of the information by less efficient mode, it can distract the learner from processing into more efficient mode. So, the concern of most language teachers is the information that a visual and text gives the reader and what the physical relationship of the text and visual should be and in which order they should be presented (Wright, 1989). In this regard, the role of students is prominent too. They need to know much more about these modes processing including when and how to use each of them alone and when and how to use them together. More research is needed to show where in the learning/teaching process, verbal/visual relationship is helpful to inform the field about the effects of altering the degrees of visualization and verbalization (Chanier, 1996).
2.1.7. What is visual instruction in new vocabulary learning?
The teaching of foreign language vocabularies is an important subject. And it is a good com
ponent for all language classes. So, all of language teachers should consider how to teach vocabulary. According Hatch & Brown (1995) vocabulary means different words which are used by all speakers in all languages. As we see the use of visual materials like pictures in teaching and learning is increasing. As a result; language teachers use different types of teaching materials to explain the meaning of new words. The use of visual materials is useful and important way for vocabulary learning. According Harmer (2001) visual things make the learning process easier. As a result; they are used by teachers for better learning. English teachers feel that the using of visual materials such as pictures, real objects, etc in teaching new words makes the learning process enjoyable and memorable. Teachers found that visual elements can attract students for better learning. According Harmer (2001) if teachers show and check the meaning of words, it can be an important and good way for use of pictures. The use of pictures is better and more useful than other materials .it is suggested that an effective use of visual things like pictures have a positive output and results in learning. (Nelson, 1976). According Nelson (1979) visual materials like pictures are very effective for memory. Because they are various and also Paivio’s dual coding theory (1986) is an interesting theory for some teachers because it contains many implications for learning process. According Mayer & Sims (1994) visual elements such as pictures or real objects are learned better than a lot of words because the use of pictures is easier and more effective. And also images are useful for learning process. As Armstrong (2001) if learners learn and memorize the vocabularies through visual materials, this way is more useful than the time when they learn vocabularies without perception of visual materials and through only text. Harmer (2001) real objects, some books, newspapers or magazines and etc make the learning process easier. As a result; they are used by teachers for better learning. Richards et al (1985) they defined this study like this: all of us are able to have this ability to remember most things after a short or long time. This ability is called retention. And also according Nelson et al (1977) we can remember pictures or images better than vocabularies. Potter &Faulconer (1975) investigated this study and they concluded that we can classified pictures better and faster than vocabularies. And also according Paivio (1986) we can store and remember pictures for a long time. According Benson (1981) there are some acknowledgement phenomena that point out: we can processed images in various kind. And also there are many researches that indicate we can read with our left brain hemisphere, while written information or visual things are learned in right hemisphere. The purpose of this study is that to find the effect of vocabularies teaching by use of visual materials on Iranian Intermediate EFL learners. This study attempted to investigate a hypothesis that visual materials can be effective on new vocabularies learning.
2.1.8. The effect of synonymy on L2 vocabulary achievement
One of the most broadly used types of verbal techniques is “Synonymy”. Synonymy occurs where several different words represent similar meanings. Very little research has investigated the effect of synonymy on vocabulary learning. Learning the synonymies of known words is very common occurrence in vocabulary learning. Intuitively and logically, learning a synonymy of a known word would be easier than learning a non-synonym. It is understandable, because the similarity between synonyms makes learning the synonyms of known words easier than learning words without known synonym. “Overlaps in collocation, syntagmatic and paradigmatic associations, grammatical functions,
طرح مسوولیت بین المللی دولت شود، مگر آنکه این اقدام با معیارهای حقوق بین الملل مثل در راستای اهداف عمومی و منفعت عمومی بودن مطابقت داشته و بدون تبعیض و به صورت غیر خودسرانه، صورت بیشتر بخوانید...